Fine tax visible from the microscope

In the Western philosophical and scientific tradition, theorists have endlessly tried to determine what separates life from non-life. Does life contain some special or enigmatic vital principle that other inanimate natural and artificial objects do not? Is it the fact that life can reproduce itself, evolve and set its own goals that distinguish it from, […]

Paris, France - June 14 2021: Foucault pendulum moving in the Pantheon de Paris. It was conceived by Leon Foucault in 1851 as an experiment to demonstrate the Earth's rotation.

When energy is ‘potential’ where or when is it? If potential energy is not also already in some sense ‘actual,’ existing in the world somewhere as energy, for example, as a lump of coal that might be burnt, then does it only come into existence when it becomes actualized, as Aristotle might write? A quick […]